Its premium grain and hard bond blend make it suitable for use on stainless steel and high-tensile alloys. Continuing our series on gas flow meters, in part two of velocity flow meters we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of ultrasonic flowmeters. ‘E ’ is Young’s Modulus of Elasticity for the pipe material. 3 - Register your new account. 80 fps High Pressure Steam (150 psig+) 150 fps Low Pressure Steam (< 50 psig) 100 fps Air 100 fps Vapor Lines, General Max velocity 0. Some tank cars contain "light ends" which affect viscosity and may cause lift. A venturi arrestor must be located close to the point of ignition to avoid problems. Schedule 40 Pipe, Non-Threaded. API RP 14E Fluid Velocity Calculator Module. The MAXIMUM recommended liquid line velocity is 400 fpm. HDPE Pressure Pipe Occasional and Recurring Surge Design Considerations Mark Knight PhD, P. This value. 5 m/s (3 to 15 ft/s). Pressure Loss through Piping. 3+ Valves 5 11. 050 **As Water Velocity increases, the capacity of a coil increases, but so does the water resistance. It is commonly measured in feet per minute (ft/min) or meters per minute (m/min). Pressure Drop Online-Calculator for small mobiles. FRICTION LOSS TABLES The Irrigation Innovators 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 12 14 1 6 1 8 2 0 2 24 26 2 8 3 0 3 5 0 1. Static electricity is generated by liquids flowing through pipes, and in mixing, pouring, pumping, filtering, or agitating liquids. 0,10 x A2 x P2 = Q2 (assuming a velocity in the downstream piping of 30 M/sec. Conventional practice for cleaning natural gas piping systems has been to admit the fuel gas into the piping system at the supply point, and vent the gas to atmosphere at the equipment at high velocity, low pressure. Assume that the flow rate is 1 m 3 /s. As a rule of thump, pipe erosion begins when velocity exceeds the value of C/SQRT (ρ) in ft/s, where ρ = gas density. It is also used as electrical insulation. Below velocities of 40 feet per second, the severity of velocity-abrasion effects depends upon the characteristics of the bed load and the frequency of flows capable of moving the bed load through the pipe at abrasive veloci-ties. A wide variety of velocity of flow in pipe options are available to you, There are 405 suppliers who sells velocity of flow in pipe on Alibaba. Total diffusivities of carbon dioxide in air for the entire radius of the pipe were computed by a semi-numerical method. In full pipes with no air socks a familiar energy equation allows us to determine the flow. Laminar flow, type of fluid (gas or liquid) flow in which the fluid travels smoothly or in regular paths, in contrast to turbulent flow, in which the fluid undergoes irregular fluctuations and mixing. com, mainly located in Asia. As gas pressure increases, the gas molecules pack closer together, resulting in increased gas density. Hopefully you will find these spreadsheets pretty easy to use, they are designed to do as much of the work for you as possible. The viscosity of #6 Fuel Oil varies from one tank car load to the next. The radiators or baseboards at the. Enter value, select unit and click on calculate. Water Flow Rate through Piping. Gas Exit Velocity Chart If Then 1 - 5 FPS** 5 - 10 FPS** > 10 FPS** 25 FPM. 5 illustrates the recommended location of the flowmeter. In the gas process lines, the velocity should be the lowest figure between 60 m/s and the velocity obtained at 1. Valves and Orifices. or 80-120 ft. 4 + D/20) m/s and a pressure drop 0. A minimum of 6 pipe diameters of straight pipe shall be installed upstream and downstream of all closely spaced tees. WARNING Duratec is only suitable for compressed air and † NEVER use compressed air or gas in PVC/CPVC/PP/PVDF inert gases. It is important for the source of the continuous purge gas flow to be located at the farthest end of the flare/vent network from the flare stack. Water Velocity through Piping. The density and viscosity of a variety of liquids and gases are coded into the pipe flow program, but you can alternatively select "User defined fluid" and. The maximum recommended velocity is 60 ft/sec to inhibit noise and 50 ft/sec for CO 2 corrosion inhibition. The effect of slip is to increase the mixture density and hence the gravity pressure gradient. The density and viscosity of a variety of liquids and gases are coded into the pipe flow program, but you can alternatively select "User defined fluid" and. ) : "The lowest design velocity … for raw wastewater is 2 ft/s to keep grit moving, and a peak daily velocity of 3. The internal diameter of the pipe is 3. Gas velocities greater than 12 m/s will create high noise levels and high suction line pressure drop which will decrease system capacity. It is proposed to present measurements that were obtained through application of a median-filter discrimination technique to separate the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) signals of the 0. The minimum pipe size for connecting a Super Stor water heater is 1 inch. Valves and Orifices. Pressure Loss through Piping. Recommended screen materials include stainless steel, fiberglass, PVC, and ABS. You would always like to keep the head loss due to friction at a minimum which is a function of square of the velocity. The boxes are selected on the basis of acceptable noise level when the pressure at the entry of the boxes is of 3 In. General Flow Equation AGA Method Weymouth Panhandle A Panhandle B IGT Equation. This equation is recommended for larger-diameter pipe (12-in. The saltation velocity is defined as the gas velocity in a horizontal pipeline in which the particles begin to fall from their state of suspension and are. 2 modified with 5 fps recurring surge velocity, the estimated number of cycles to failure for the DR18 PVC pipe is less than 1 million cycles and the Fatigue Life is. 174 ft/sec², P is pressure in psi and Ws is gas flow (lbm/sec). In the older standing-pilot furnaces, this combustion air sup- ply was commonly supplied through natural air infiltration (cracks in the walls and around windows and doors) or through ventilating ducts. By using Table 10. 74 Maximum recommended fluid velocity is 8 feet per second (solenoid valves 5 feet per second). Higher the velocity, h. Today we look at minimum velocity in heat exchangers. 14 standards governed the manufacture of Ductile Iron pipe and fittings (respectively) for gas service. Chart 2 is based on 100 feet of pipe; therefore, you have to convert all elbows to an equivalent of pipe. Some operating companies prefer to use (density*velocity^2) criteria. Measures to prevent low velocities In intermittent or batch transfer operations, when demand is low at the receiving station, continue pumping at the same high rate as required for peak demand. When figuring the feet of pipe count lateral type branches as 45° elbows. Liquid is then pushed out of the gas core and onto the pipe wall forming a film. The pipe flow rate calculator (a. Pipe noise J. At high gas velocities, gas tends to move to the center of the pipe forming a vortex commonly known as gas core. The maximum recommended design velocity is 18 m/s,though higher velocities are also acceptable. Design of PE Piping Systems 159 The Hydrostatic Design Stress, HDS, is the safe long-term circumferential stress that PE pipe can withstand. If you do not know velocity, recommended values are for gas up to 20 m/s and for oil 1 m/s, but it depends on available pressure. It features a 40-inch (101. This calculator may also be used to determine the appropriate pipe diameter required to achieve a desired velocity and flow rate. With a smoothly shaped outlet from tank to pipe, the velocity profile is a function of dis-tance. As two-way valves close in hydronic systems, the velocity in a primary variable shell and tube heat exchanger will drop as the flow rate drops. Unlike the conventional gas flowmeters, the proposed technique exploits the one-dimensional plane waves that propagate uniformly across the pipe cross-sectional area. The internal diameter of the pipe is 3. 10 bronze badges. 3 Recommended guidelines on identifying the accuracy of WCD calculations due to. A reinforced element, or an element with a centering spider for support within the pipe line, is recommended for pipe line spargers. Obviously, this will depend upon the flue height, but what is the relationship between height and velocity? I know the gas will lose heat as it moves up in contact with the flue wall, slowing it down. With increasing superficial gas velocity the peaking gets stronger. Hi Charl, thank you. In laminar fl ow, the center line velocity is higher than in turbulent flow of equal mean velocity (figure 2). The head loss across a venturi meter is usually between 10% and 20% of Δh. calculate the velocity of gas at the inlet and outlet of the pipe if the inlet pressure is 1000 psig and the outlet pressure is 850 psig. Instead, the particles carried by effluent in high velocity may create abrasion problem of concrete. Pressure drop occurs with frictional forces, caused by the resistance to flow on a fluid as it flows through the tube or pipe. Annular velocity is the speed of a fluid's movement in a column called an annulus in wells being drilled with circulating drilling fluid. Adams Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH C. The American Petroleum Institute have guidelines (see API RP14E) for the flow velocity below which erosion damage is minimized. 5% of gas velocity. 7 psia and 60°F, respectively. 2 Velocity = (1. Corrosion on the internal wall of a natural gas pipeline can occur when the pipe wall is exposed to water and contaminants in the gas, such as O 2, H 2 S, CO 2, or chlorides. Flow rates over 5 ft. The 2nd set of columns show what you can expect using an average pump with a pressure from 20 to 100psi. The hot and cold water that we use in our homes is pumped through pipes. 25 kg/m$^3$ for pressure and find the velocity? The pipe length is 10 ft and diameter is 1 ft. zdas04 (Mechanical) 14 Feb 06 09:32 Katmar's point is far too important to skip over--it is totally meaningless to calculate bulk velocity directly from a volume flow rate at standard conditions unless your gas is actually flowing at 14. The second is the pressure energy. Entrained air in the water will reduce the velocity to a degree dependent on the content. When calculating velocity for a pipe section, the source system pressure is considered. where ρ is the gas/liquid density at the flow temperature and pressure, C is an empirical constant, and V is the maximum recommended velocity. The magnitude of the pressure surge caused by sudden changes in the velocity of the flow in a pipe is a function of the change in velocity, the stiffness (modulus) of the pipe, and the resistance to compression (bulk modulus) of the flowing fluid. The abrasive effect is dependent on the size of particles and velocity. If RQP5 or T5 Hose is to be used, for this example -16 would also be required. Flowrate (MMSCFD) General Flow Equation. Substituting values, 0. Hydrodynamic Ultrasonic Sensor. The four basic line types in a hydraulic system are pump suction, return (Low pressure <100 PSI), medium pressure (500 to 2000 PSI), and high pressure (2100 to 5000 PSI). Use different pipe sizes for horizontal and vertical lines to make it easier to match line pressure drop and refrigerant velocity to suction-line requirements. 74 Maximum recommended fluid velocity is 8 feet per second (solenoid valves 5 feet per second). For gas, the speed limit is much high. pw are gas to wall and solids to wall friction force respectively, L = pipe length, = angle of pipe with horizontal What happens for horizontal flow? Force balance on pipe. 2: Velocity through a Control Valve). 0 Centre Line Method Pipe Size in inches. filter, hood slots, air control dampers or louvers. • The pipe shall be 7 ft in length, with a minimum O. Most experts agree that the velocity should never exceed 10 ft/s. Figure 1: Deposition velocity of polydispersed particles on the internal surfaces of a horizontal square exhaust duct vs. Best Sellers Sale! Arizer Extreme Q. 1 feet per second. Concentric Orifice PlatePlate. Sizing calculation based on General flow equation, AGA, Weymouth, Panhandle A, Panhandle B, IGT equation. Use the water velocity form to calculate the velocity of water in a pipe. ) flow units. The most common method used to describe velocity flow profiles for natural gas measurement is shown in Figure 1, Velocity Flow. If the flow velocity is 2 ms^(−1) determine: a) the velocity in the larger diameter. Pressure drop occurs with frictional forces, caused by the resistance to flow on a fluid as it flows through the tube or pipe. Therefore, we can write minor losses as 2 mL 2 V hK g = , where K L is called the loss coefficient. Manning Formula Uniform Pipe Flow at Given Slope and Depth. 1bars in the first section of pipe. 04 bar/100 m of pipe. A number ranging between five (5) to ten (10) suction pipe diameters of straight pipe run is typically the recommended value in published technical literature. Economical Insulation Thickness. 2: Velocity through a Control Valve). A Pitot tube should be inserted at least 8-1/2 duct diameters downstream from elbows, bends or other obstructions which create turbulence. Determine the pipe diameter based on a recommended gas velocity of 95 feet per second. The side stream can be pumped from the main pipe or it can come from an external source. 050 **As Water Velocity increases, the capacity of a coil increases, but so does the water resistance. Segmental – recommended for fluids combine with vapor or vapor with fluids. The minimum transport velocity is defined as the lowest velocity at which particles can be transported inside a pipeline in a stable manner without deposition on the bottom of the pipe. View Full Profile. 05 MPa to 0. the recommended maximum fluid velocity should not be exceeded if optimum pipe AS 1322-1987 Shipbuilding-Recommended fluid velocities in ships' pipes Author:. Hl = f l V 2 (1) d2gWhere Hl is the head loss (m or ft) f is the pipe wall friction factor depending on the liquid's viscosity (dimensionless) l is the equivalent pipe length (m or ft) V is the liquid velocity (m/s or ft/s) d is the pipe diameter (m or ft) g is the gravitational constant (9. DEAR TIM: I've got both a fireplace and a free-standing wood heater spaced 15 feet apart from one another in my open kitchen and living area. The pipe contains an incompressible fluid of density 1000 kgm^(−3) and runs full. Velocities higher than this can and will. A) MMAD = 4. For pipe large than 8", the speed limit is 6-12 ft/s, depending on the state of the liquid. There are no 5' steps in the length chart so you have to go to the next higher column which is 90 feet. 5),Q is the volume of gas to be handled in (cfs), V is the velocity (ft/sec) and A is the the cross sectional area of the chimney or stack (ft*2). A reinforced element, or an element with a centering spider for support within the pipe line, is recommended for pipe line spargers. Pipe Line Velocity Calculator: Enter value, select unit and click on calculate. Please click on the link given below to obtain the data files. For all practical purposes there is no upper limit to the acid velocity in SX piping but generally velocities in the range of 2 to 3 m/s are used for pressure drop reasons. VELOCITY TO GPM CONVERSIONS in standard wall pipes* Flow Velocity (ft/sec) x Factor (1 ft/sec) = GPM Typical HVAC Design Maximum Flow = 4 to 8 ft/sec Nominal Pipe Size GPM @ 1 ft/sec GPM @ 2 ft/sec GPM @ 4 ft/sec GPM @ 8 ft/sec GPM @ 10 ft/sec. 637917360317 ft/s 902296. This causes the pipe surface to erode, with the rate of erosion increasing with the flow velocity. Best Practices for Natural Gas Line Cleaning. Studies will be made on how to express losses caused by a change in the cross sectional area of a pipe, a pipe bend and a valve, in addition to the frictional loss of a pipe. The velocity must be converted to feet per hour by multiplying the recommended velocity value by 3,600 (3,600 seconds equals one hour). As the cups become worn, the amount of blow-by fluid by-passing the pigs increases because the seal is not as effective. com, mainly located in Asia. 10 bronze badges. The recommended values for the velocity of gas main transmission lines is usually 40% to 50% of the erosional velocity (10-13 Ejm value d m / sec or 33-43 ft / sec is an acceptable value for design purposes. bring pressure drop of pipe diameter Selected,. 6 µm, exhaust air temperature = 120°F (48. The best practice is a flow velocity of 3 ft. For pipe large than 8", the speed limit is 6-12 ft/s, depending on the state of the liquid. In full pipes with no air socks a familiar energy equation allows us to determine the flow. Pockets of air collecting at high points can lead to a line restriction. C=100 in most cases. Assume compressibility factor Z = 1. Pressure drop. The thrust is then equal to the exit mass flow rate times the exit velocity minus the free stream mass flow rate times the free stream velocity. VANEC offers models capable of supressing gas discharge noise to a community located as close as 400 ft from the vent or blowdown. Mott has produced GasSavers up to 12 inches in diameter. or 80-120 ft. Pipe sizes are usually given in diameters, as most of the pipes in use are round. It is commonly measured in feet per minute (ft/min) or meters per minute (m/min). Corrosion on the internal wall of a natural gas pipeline can occur when the pipe wall is exposed to water and contaminants in the gas, such as O 2, H 2 S, CO 2, or chlorides. The following formula is used by this calculator to populate the value for the flow rate, pipe diameter or water velocity, whichever is unknown: V = 0. 9 ft/s) Fit slowly closing valves. In laminar fl ow, the center line velocity is higher than in turbulent flow of equal mean velocity (figure 2). less (recommended), or up to 45º or if there is insufficient space. The flow regime is turbulent, but that's not a concern for a heat distribution pipe. 5 illustrates the recommended location of the flowmeter. The next graph shows the velocity against time output for both the normal bypass pig and the VC Pig (Velocity Control Pig), with both pigs having a drive Differential of 1. Sizing calculation based on General flow equation, AGA, Weymouth, Panhandle A, Panhandle B, IGT equation. C=100 in most cases. If the pipe diameter is constant, the velocity will be constant and there will be no change in pressure due to a change in velocity. Learn More About Our Warranty. refinery, Suez University, Egypt [email protected] The effect of slip is to increase the mixture density and hence the gravity pressure gradient. 1bars in the first section of pipe. The main problem associated with air is air accumulation, line restriction and increased velocity. The usual recommended maximum pressure drop for calculations of R-12 hot gas lines is 2 psig, and a minimum velocity of 1,500 fpm (feet per minute) in vertical, and 750 fpm in horizontal piping to maintain oil movement. Some tank cars contain "light ends" which affect viscosity and may cause lift. Enter the flow rate, and the internal diameter of the pipeline. In most circumstances, the problem of abrasion shall be avoided for flow velocities less than 8m/s. Steam Velocity through Piping. 0 out of 5 Stars – ABN: 83587478418 – Member since January 2016. position the pump and select pipe and fitting size to give vacuum readings of 15" Hg or less. Velocity Holdup 1 0 Nearly horizontal well • Almost stratified flows. Preliminary PiPe SizinG The determination of the pipe size required to transport a given amount of fluid is the first step in designing a piping system. All fittings shall be 3000 pound forged carbon steel ASTM A-105. Dry Carbon dioxide gas. This equation is only valid for horizontal flow with shear stress as the limiting factor If ρ is in lb ft −3 and V is in ft s −1, then C has units of lb 0. Flowrate (MMSCFD) General Flow Equation. If capital cost was the main design criteria, you could consider using a smaller pipe size. A gas furnace requires an unobstructed supply of air for combustion. 7 m/s in air. p = mixture density (lbm/ft') The recommendations also require reducing the erosional velocity below the. Thus, qv = Z A u dA = Z R 0 u(r)2πrdr =2πVmax Z R 0 1− r R 2 rdr =2πVmax r2 2. The velocity of the water is required for this calculation. The trim exit velocity head is 300 kPa – well below 480 kPa. Chern Bechtel, San Francisco, CA. The maximum recommended design velocity is 18 m/s,though higher velocities are also acceptable. At one time, the ANSI A21. The difference in velocity between the gas and liquid is termed the slip velocity. For flows at lower pressure, consult more complete references. 6 Solar Panels 2 4. Obviously, this will depend upon the flue height, but what is the relationship between height and velocity? I know the gas will lose heat as it moves up in contact with the flue wall, slowing it down. Note: Calculations are possible only, if Javascript is activated in your browser. For superheated steam, the velocities can be up to 40m/sec.  Best practices suggest the distribution header should be sized to allow an air velocity not to exceed 30 ft/second. orientation of the vent pipe, velocity and density of the natural gas being discharged, potential sources of ignition, personnel location, wind. P2 = outlet pressure in bar abs. With increasing superficial gas velocity the peaking gets stronger. Abou-Haidar and Dixon 8 present experimental data for equivalent velocity head factors for welded pipes having sharp edges at multiple angles over a range of flows. The commonly used practice for controlling sand erosion in gas and oil producing wells is to limit production velocity; the critical velocity is called fluid threshold velocity, below which an allowable amount of erosion occurs. All Glassware Brands. Pressure drop occurs with frictional forces, caused by the resistance to flow on a fluid as it flows through the tube or pipe. Pipeline Period:- Time required for a pressure wave to traverse the pipe/pipeline length and come back. For general fluid dynamic background Miller (1996) offers a thorough textbook description of velocity profiles and distortions of the profile due to upstream piping effects. • The pipe shall be 7 ft in length, with a minimum O. Our pipe is carrying 22MW natural gas at 80֯C with a speed of sound of 365m/s. High velocity Liquefied gas Multi-phase crude Sour gas Hydrate formations Abrasive pipe scale. In most circumstances, the problem of abrasion shall be avoided for flow velocities less than 8m/s. The critical velocity is analogous to transition velocity in flow of homogeneous fluids , the velocity at which laminar flow ceases to exist (Reynolds No. Trojan had less than optimum values for material, oxygen, pH and flow velocity and wasn't too good with regard to temperature. 5, Neotechnology Consultants Ltd, Calgary, Canada, 1991. Trailer Park Boys. Khomarloo and K. 4 + D/20) m/s and a pressure drop 0. Water Velocity Calculator. This behavior can be understood from Equations (2), (3) and (5). gas velocity at the condition is not over (or too much over) half of the calculated sonic velocity. This is the description of empirical relationships for estimating whether erosion will occur in a system at a certain velocity used at PQplot. Too much velocity and the system will not be efficient because of Laminar flow issues. Enter your data here: Hole Size (inches): Pipe Size (inches): Hole Size (inches) 12. I recommend not more than 6 feet per second unless there is a requirement for suspended solids (critical carry velocity) and other slurry rheology concerns. Steam Velocity through Piping. We also use the. A separator for condensate removal is recommended for gas flows. To determine the pipeline velocity at conditions, merely divide the velocity given in Equation 1 by the compression ratio given in Equation 2. As the flue gas moves up the flue what happens to its velocity? In particular, I need to know the exit velocity at the flue terminal. This computes to 95 x 3,600 or 342,000 feet per hour. Coriolis Oil & Gas Metering Recommended Practices for Upstream Allocation Best Practices Page 4 Thermowell Port Provides for use of a flow temperature reference The F-series sensor is a high performance sensor in the verification of the temperature measurement made by the sensor. Pressure Drop Online-Calculator Calculation of pressure drops of flowing liquids and gases in pipes and pipe elements (laminar and turbulent flow). Flow Measurement In Open Channels Open channel flow is flow in any channel in which the liquid flows with a free surface. 2 How flow regimes can be used to indicate the accuracy of wellbore flow models?. All fittings shall be 3000 pound forged carbon steel ASTM A-105. The recommended method in RP 14E for sizing gas/liquid flowlines is to limit operating velocity to the erosional velocity' limit. Design of PE Piping Systems 159 The Hydrostatic Design Stress, HDS, is the safe long-term circumferential stress that PE pipe can withstand. pipieline velocity calculation In this example, calculate the fluid velocity through a pipeline. The main factors of resistance to fluid flow are fluid viscosity and fluid velocity. WARNING Duratec is only suitable for compressed air and † NEVER use compressed air or gas in PVC/CPVC/PP/PVDF inert gases. The minimum line size is 8 inches in diameter. No other manufacturer of PVC pipe or PE pipe stands behind its products the way JM Eagle does. 637917360317 ft/s 902296. The 2nd set of columns show what you can expect using an average pump with a pressure from 20 to 100psi. For solids free fluids a maximum C value of 100 for continuous service, or 125 for intermittent service is recommended. transmission pipelines for liquid and gas scope 28 sizing criteria 28 crude oil pipelines 28 natural gas liquids (ngl) pipelines 30 natural gas pipelines 30 two phase flow two phase flow sizing process piping 32 two-phase flow patterns 36 velocity limitations 37 maintain the proper regime 38 design considerations 39 appendix a 43. General The following figure shows maximum recommended acid velocities in various materials and at various temperatures. Single-phase gas lines are normally designed based on the velocity criteria as specified in API 14E. Valves and Orifices. In Equation (3), the pressure falls off, due to friction. Water Velocity through Piping. The best practice is a flow velocity of 3 ft. In general it is common to set. Recognition of the noise problem in the design stage should result in the the velocity in a piping system increases by a factor of two (due, for. Since it plays such a key role in the flow rate calculation, the area of the pipe, and so the diameter of the pipe, must be precisely measured for accurate flow measurement. Velocity of at least 1000 feet per minute is required to carry oil up a suction riser. Sewers shall be designed and constructed to give a minimum design velocity of 2 feet/second and a maximum velocity of 10 feet/second. For all practical purposes there is no upper limit to the acid velocity in SX piping but generally velocities in the range of 2 to 3 m/s are used for pressure drop reasons. The Venturi effect is a jet effect; as with a funnel the velocity of the fluid. As a rule of thump, pipe erosion begins when velocity exceeds the value of C/SQRT (ρ) in ft/s, where ρ = gas density. Just because we can operate at the edge of the maximum velocity does not mean we should. 625 (5/8") inch or larger. Static electricity is generated by liquids flowing through pipes, and in mixing, pouring, pumping, filtering, or agitating liquids. factor is about 0. Dry Carbon dioxide gas. 10 bronze badges. The angle of the widening section must not be greater than 15º. Enter the flow rate, and the internal diameter of the pipeline. The more rigid the pipe, the slower the valve must close. Water Velocity through Piping. The gas turbine meter is a velocity (rate) sensing device. Piping Systems - The most effective method of reducing the accumulation of static charges in piping systems is through proper pipe sizing to keep liquid velocities low. Line size selection Selecting the proper line size for a hydraulic system is critical to get maximum performance and life from your hydraulic components. This causes the pipe surface to erode, with the rate of erosion increasing with the flow velocity. View Full Profile. 10 catline A line powered by the cathead used to lift or pull equipment around a rig. Therefore it is less expensive to install the piping. We also offer models that reduce noise to an acceptable level at 800 ft or 1600 ft from the source. Pressure drop is not the controlling factor for my case. The fluid velocity in single-phase liquid lines varies from 0. The suction. Unfortunately, the trim exit velocity head alone is not a good predictor of such an important phenomena. 14 standards governed the manufacture of Ductile Iron pipe and fittings (respectively) for gas service. 99 Sebastjan Valic iOS Version 3. Hg) K K is the velocity constant for pitot tubes and is set to 34. It can occur when flow reverses direction and goes back against a stopped pump. ii) Secondary separation section The major separation principle in this section is gravity settling of liquid from the gas stream after its velocity has been reduced. Calculate API RP 14E fluid velocity and flowrate for single phase gas, single phase liquid, two phase gas liquid, and three phase gas, oil and water (black oil). 3 - Register your new account. This velocity is calculated using Manning’s equation, under full flow conditions even if the pipe is only flowing partially full with the design storm. Pressure, peak or otherwise, does not exist as part of free recoil. The viscosity of #6 Fuel Oil varies from one tank car load to the next. are problematic and not a wise design criteria. Economical Insulation Thickness. Flash Steam Generation. V = Water Velocity; Q = Flow Rate; D = Pipe Diameter. Antaki, Co-chairman WSRC, Aiken, SC J. For dry saturated steam lines, the velocities considered range between 25-35 m/s. Steam pipe sizing calculations are based on the specific volume of steam while using the velocity method. Recommended velocity to in pipes. The critical velocity is analogous to transition velocity in flow of homogeneous fluids , the velocity at which laminar flow ceases to exist (Reynolds No. pipe and fittings. Best Practices for Natural Gas Line Cleaning. " For this reason, the limiting critical velocity maynot be conservative. The chart is for cast iron and thicker grades of pipe. The hydraulic gradient is a vector gradient between two or more hydraulic head measurements over the length of the flow path. a = Velocity of propagation of elastic vibration in the pipe in feet per second. Steam Flow Rate through an Orifice. Flow Measurement In Open Channels Open channel flow is flow in any channel in which the liquid flows with a free surface. - Select the flue gas velocity you want to keep inside the stack. The following formula is used by this calculator to populate the value for the flow rate, pipe diameter or water velocity, whichever is unknown: V = 0. Recommended Mean Velocities in Pipe From Various Sources Fluid Velocity Dry Gas 100 fps Wet Gas. Any gas entrained in the liquid, or collected at a high point in the suction piping, tends to absorb the pulsations from the pump, and thereby reduces acceleration head. All pressure piping. Due to the lack of space, the specification sheets have just one column for a liquid line size. Cv & Kvs Values. When figuring the feet of pipe count lateral type branches as 45° elbows. A = ACFM FPM Select the appropriate Mott sparger element. Layout arrangement for Centrifugal Pump Piping 1. Large pipes carry air flows in a pipe. Where E = recoil Energy in ft. Selecting the Optimum Pipe Size. decrease) of the gas-vapor as the fluid decompresses (i. The minimum pipe size for connecting a Munchkin boiler shall be no smaller than the units connection size on supply & return piping. Unions are available with line pipe or tubing threads, butt-weld, or nonpressure- thread seal end connections. 637917360317 ft/s 902296. The formula to calculate this is: A =     144 * Q * Pa        V *60 x (Pd +Pa). General Flow Equation AGA Method Weymouth Panhandle A Panhandle B IGT Equation. Helmholtz concluded that the elasticity of the pipe wall reduces the acoustic velocity, hence the acoustic velocity of a confined liquid is given by Equation 4. In two-phase flow, it is possible that liquid droplets in the flow stream will impact on the wall of the pipe causing erosion of the products of corrosion. within the pipe is the velocity flow profile. Hart, Co-chairman SSD, Inc. 97 m/s (Fabre et al. Gas specific gravity Pipe diameter Pipe length Inlet pressure Outlet pressure Elevation difference Efficiency Constants Base. Steam Flow Rate through Piping. I like to keep my velocity on the vertical above 1500 fpm and keep the Delta on the suction below 4 F (preferably 2-3 F). The method for establishing the Hydrostatic Design Stress for PE pipe is described in Chapters 3 and 5. The velocity of a fluidin a pipe should not exceed the values shown in Figures 1 to 6, as appropriate. Calculate sparger area required Ft2 (A). 05 Pipe Size 1/4" 1/2" 3/4" 1" 1-1/2" 2" 3" 4" 6" 8" 10" 12" 10000 22. Pipe Sizing by Velocity. Sizing calculation based on General flow equation, AGA, Weymouth, Panhandle A, Panhandle B, IGT equation. The most common method used to describe velocity flow profiles for natural gas measurement is shown in Figure 1, Velocity Flow. Gas Defrost Liquid Lines Branch Lines Liquid lines to the cases should be branched off the bottom of the header. Specify pipe fittings and the resulting pressure drop will be calculated. The thrust is then equal to the exit mass flow rate times the exit velocity minus the free stream mass flow rate times the free stream velocity. Using consistent units, needless to say. These results can be obtained by referring to the manufacturers' charts on "pipe sizing". Near-Boiler Piping Size shown is based on 2 to 5. Piping Systems - The most effective method of reducing the accumulation of static charges in piping systems is through proper pipe sizing to keep liquid velocities low. warranties for pipe are void at higher velocities. T 1 = upstream absolute temperature in the pipe, oR. Stainless steel pipe has high corrosion resistance in plumbing applications and drinking water transfer, even at high flow rates. For example, for a 10kW appliance the flow rate will be:. 0472 in the in the flow rate box and choose cubic feet per second from its menu. Flow expresses the quantity of fluid (liquid, gas or steam) that passes through a section in a unit of time. Thanks for the information. ABS pipes are easier to install than PVC pipes, as PVC pipes need a purple primer before each joint is glued together, and the joints must then be held together for 5 to 10 seconds for the glue to take hold. The difference in velocity between the gas and liquid is termed the slip velocity. Lower surge pressures often mean longer life for pumps and valves in an HDPE pipeline, as well as lower pressure class pipes. For a clean liquid in a valve with a stainless steel or alloy body material velocity may reach 35 feet per second. A Pitot tube should be inserted at least 8-1/2 duct diameters downstream from elbows, bends or other obstructions which create turbulence. 5 m: The velocity value for the above pipe velocity equation is 76. For fiber reinforced plastic pipe (FRP), support spacing in liquid service would vary from around 11-ft for 2" pipe to 22-ft for 8" pipe; and for gas service 17-ft for 2" to 40-ft for 8". 0 Full Specs Visit Site External Download Site. The hot and cold water that we use in our homes is pumped through pipes. Locate the flow rate in GPM demand along the left side of the chart, using the GPM demand from Step 1. Use the second form to calculate the diameter of a pipe required for 5 fps pipe velocity. Large pipes carry air flows in a pipe. The 3rd set of columns is the maximum flow based on maximum recommended velocity of the liquid in the pipe. Our pipe is carrying 22MW natural gas at 80֯C with a speed of sound of 365m/s. Pressure Drop Table Available Pressure at Valve Model # Min Flow Min Flow to 5 1020304560 100 * Rate ASSE 1017 Flow Rate in GPM 431 0. Single-phase gas flow lines For single-phase gas lines, pressure drop is the primary basis for sizing.  Gathering lines are medium steel pipes (usually less than 18 inches in diameter) that carry unodorized, raw gas at a pressure of approximately 715 psi. column (the maximum recommended velocity range for pressure lines). 0,10 x A2 x P2 = Q2 (assuming a velocity in the downstream piping of 30 M/sec. • The velocity into the nozzle should be the same as the velocity in the pipe in which the fluid is sampled, at the tip location • The nozzle must face directly into the sampled stream in order to minimise the divergence of the flow lines at the nozzle inlet. Contractor knowledge and experience are critical to The Unico System operating at the highest level for years to come. Assa, Sazeh Consultants, Tehran, Iran. Pipe Sizing Steam Supply and Condensate Return Lines Definitions consider the next size pipe, 6", as velocity will then be less than 8,000 fpm. 7 velocity criteria for sizing multiphase pipelines Nowadays line sizing of raw gas lines (i. The velocity can be calculated as v = 0. Chern Bechtel, San Francisco, CA. Layout arrangement for Centrifugal Pump Piping 1. The magnitude of the pressure surge caused by sudden changes in the velocity of the flow in a pipe is a function of the change in velocity, the stiffness (modulus) of the pipe, and the resistance to compression (bulk modulus) of the flowing fluid. DEAR TIM: I've got both a fireplace and a free-standing wood heater spaced 15 feet apart from one another in my open kitchen and living area. A new approach for sizing finger-type (multiple-pipe) slug catchers. • Black - for global water and gas supplies, UK potable water supplies above the ground and industrial (sewage, mining and quarry) applications above and below ground. 98 for smoothly tapering venturis. Most experts agree that the velocity should never exceed 10 ft/s. 5 x Pipe ID. 0763944372117303 km/s 275. 6 Determining the gas flow rate for an appliance To determine the gas-rate for an appliance divide the appliance heat input in kW by the ‘calorific value’ (CV) of the gas being burnt. The recommended flow rate for roller cone bit is 30 to 50 GPM/in of bit diameter. Good pipeline control (start-up and shut-down procedures). A velocity head is. Flowrate (MMSCFD) General Flow Equation. As is frequently the case in gas flow, the velocity is expressed in terms of the Mach number: (9a) (9b) (9c) Sonic choking In almost all instances of gas flow in pipes, the gas accelerates along the length of the pipe. It is important for the source of the continuous purge gas flow to be located at the farthest end of the flare/vent network from the flare stack. FRICTION LOSS TABLES The Irrigation Innovators 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 12 14 1 6 1 8 2 0 2 24 26 2 8 3 0 3 5 0 1. The density and viscosity of a variety of liquids and gases are coded into the pipe flow program, but you can alternatively select "User defined fluid" and. Some tank cars contain "light ends" which affect viscosity and may cause lift. As a rule of thump, pipe erosion begins when velocity exceeds the value of C/SQRT (ρ) in ft/s, where ρ = gas density. A flue-gas stack, also known as a smoke stack, chimney stack or simply as a stack, is a type of chimney, a vertical pipe, channel or similar structure through which combustion product gases called flue gases are exhausted to the outside air. Pergmon VELOCITY OF LONG BUBBLES IN OSCILLATING VERTICAL PIPES D. As the liquid exits the hole, it increases to velocity V 2 through the hole, pressure P 2 at the hole exit, and an elevation Z 2 of the hole exit. Because the recommended velocities are likely out of date, the resulting pipe diameter values can be far from reality. The fluid velocity in single-phase liquid lines varies from 0. 4 as a guide, it is possible to select pipe sizes from known data; steam pressure, velocity and flowrate. In this case, we need a hose I. As gas pressure increases, the gas molecules pack closer together, resulting in increased gas density. 2 How flow regimes can be used to indicate the accuracy of wellbore flow models?. 502497143 ft/s. Gas sonic velocity calculator This is a free software available in two versions, a desktop software for windows operating systems and a mobile application for android phones. Let’s take a case in which the velocity is searched based on flow rate of 15 m 3 /s and diameter of 0. 6 µm, exhaust air temperature = 150°F (65. The gas velocity in the common suction line between evaporators and the suction header must be minimum 4 m/s in horizontal lines and minimum 8 m/s in vertical lines (recommendation 8 to 12 m/s). Assume compressibility factor Z = 1. The hot and cold water that we use in our homes is pumped through pipes. expands) — 1 > 2 This changing density results in other parameters being typically affected — GAS-VAPOR GAS-VAPOR ∆h = h1 - h2 ∆h = 0 THERMODYNAMIC PRINCIPLES THROTTLING PROCESS. Use the water velocity form to calculate the velocity of water in a pipe. ) A2 = outlet port area in mm². The Performance Pipe. Learn More About Our Warranty. View Full Profile. Pipe will not knowingly supply products for such a project. 4 as a guide, it is possible to select pipe sizes from known data; steam pressure, velocity and flowrate. The radiators or baseboards at the. or 80-120 ft. University of Waterloo Camille George Rubeiz, P. A pipes diameter becomes a main factor because it directly reflects the velocity of the pipe. Learn More Flexible Design. using 1" PEX for this pipe will result in a head loss of just 1. The difference in velocity between the gas and liquid is termed the slip velocity. Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 40 Pipe. A Pitot tube should be inserted at least 8-1/2 duct diameters downstream from elbows, bends or other obstructions which create turbulence. The Fanning friction factor for laminar flows is = 16 (3) where Re = Dvρ/μ is the Reynolds number (ρ and μ are the fluid density and viscosity, respectively). Maximum Recommended Flow Velocities. (Galvanized pipe is not recommended because some galvanizing material may flake off and get into moving parts. Simultaneous planar velocity measurements of both the carrier gas and particles are reported of well-characterized particle-laden co-flowing pipe jets. orientation of the vent pipe, velocity and density of the natural gas being discharged, potential sources of ignition, personnel location, wind. velocity are mentioned that are related to erosion or erosion-corrosion. V E = Erosion velocity limit (m/s) D = pipe internal diameter (mm) W = sand production rate (kg/day) Mix den = Mixture density in (kg/m3) Author has worked projects for many well-known oil and gas companies e. Learn more about the units used on this page. In turbulent flow, the velocity grad ient is greater near to the pipe wall than it is in laminar flow. The most overlooked area in aluminium compressed air piping layout and design is the velocity of the compressed fluid. My rule of thumb is max. The velocity of a fluidin a pipe should not exceed the values shown in Figures 1 to 6, as appropriate. Suction Piping - Problems. Stainless steel pipe has high corrosion resistance in plumbing applications and drinking water transfer, even at high flow rates. Conventional practice for cleaning natural gas piping systems has been to admit the fuel gas into the piping system at the supply point, and vent the gas to atmosphere at the equipment at high velocity, low pressure. if a velocity of 5 feet per second is exceeded, caution should be used so as to avoid the potential for damaging surge pressures. The line crosses Hose Bore between -12 and -16 on "All Other Dash Sizes" side of Hose Bore axis, so a -16 hose is required. This maximum flow velocity is a function of velocity and density, and given by this equation. velocity are mentioned that are related to erosion or erosion-corrosion. 3 where n = l - ( 0. 625 (5/8") inch or larger. In selecting a pipe or tubing material for gaseous oxygen service there are four basic criteria: % oxygen in the gas, pressure, temperature and velocity. The section on the rise of a gas bubble in liquid covers the various parameters governing bubble rise and their effect on the rise velocity. This is the description of empirical relationships for estimating whether erosion will occur in a system at a certain velocity used at PQplot. inlet upstream pressure is more than 5 psig (35 kPa) fittings factor 1. Maximum Recommended Flow Velocities. Re: Gas Velocity in a pipe With some assumptions (compressibility at 0. v = 285 m/s. Plastics Pipe Institute Larry Petroff, P. 3µm, isothermal conditions B) MMAD = 1. Flow rates over 5 ft. commonly reported in velocity heads. 04 bar/100 m of pipe. This computes to 95 x 3,600 or 342,000 feet per hour. FLOW IN PIPES Fluid flow in circular and noncircular pipes is commonly encountered in practice. It is a balance between the desired capacity and the resultant 20. Water in a city is distributed by extensive piping net-works. The best practice is a flow velocity of 3 ft. 3 time the maximum process flow rate. This information is then used to determine the minimum inside diameter of the pipe for the network. (ft/sec)) defined by [l]: c. The files are text files and can be read by Excel. When oil velocities are higher than recommended in. Suction Piping - Problems. Pressure Loss through Piping. 1 m 2 cross-section of flow area. Flow of Water Through Schedule 40 Steel Pipe Pressure Drop per 100 feet and Velocity in Schedule 40 Pipe for Water at 60 F. Sonic velocity is also known as speed of sound. But as soon as fluid flows through the pipe we have to modify that wavelength. Most experts agree that the velocity should never exceed 10 ft/s. The maximum velocity in the tubes is a function of several factors, including the tube material, the opening sizes, and the liquid type. Corrosion on the internal wall of a natural gas pipeline can occur when the pipe wall is exposed to water and contaminants in the gas, such as O 2, H 2 S, CO 2, or chlorides. Muzzleloading Pressure, Recoil, and Velocity By Randy Wakeman For some reason, these three factors are often thought to be directly related, whether the muzzleloading propellant of choice is black powder, Pyrodex, Triple 7, or smokeless powder used as a black powder substitute. This paper proposes a new technique for measuring the gas flow velocity averaged along the finite length of a pipe as well as over its cross-sectional area. In turbulent flow, the velocity grad ient is greater near to the pipe wall than it is in laminar flow. 0472 in the in the flow rate box and choose cubic feet per second from its menu. In the gas process lines, the velocity should be the lowest figure between 60 m/s and the velocity obtained at 1. It is also recommended for long runs of pipe ( > 20 miles) such as cross-country transmission pipelines and for moderate Reynolds numbers. The double riser works because on low load, as the suction volume is reduced, so is the velocity in a certain size suction pipe. The basic hydrodynamics is based on friction of viscous origin; see 9. VELOCITY TO GPM CONVERSIONS in standard wall pipes* Flow Velocity (ft/sec) x Factor (1 ft/sec) = GPM Typical HVAC Design Maximum Flow = 4 to 8 ft/sec Nominal Pipe Size GPM @ 1 ft/sec GPM @ 2 ft/sec GPM @ 4 ft/sec GPM @ 8 ft/sec GPM @ 10 ft/sec. Q = Flow rate SCFM. 5 psi/100 ft Light Volatile Liquid near Bubble Point, Pump Suction 0. The side stream can be pumped from the main pipe or it can come from an external source. Heating systems, recommended pressure drop a pipe with a mistress for small diameter pipes (from DN150 tubes) for 100-200 Pa/m, and large-diameter pipes for 100-150 Pa/m. The main factors of resistance to fluid flow are fluid viscosity and fluid velocity. 2 shall not be installed so that closure of the device can interrupt the main flow of inert safety purge gas to connected furnaces containing indeterminate special processing atmospheres. Unfortunately, the trim exit velocity head alone is not a good predictor of such an important phenomena. The user should review the original source of publication which are all available at. Thanks for the information. AWWA M23 PVC Pipe—Design and Installation employ this type of analysis method. Liquid inside a pipe, tank, or other confined space flows out through a hole or crack. It likely won't stop those who think a tiny peak pressure node. 95 m/s, more liquid will occupy the cross section of the pipe. Thus, a higher liquid velocity (e. If there is no slope (as it is usual for water pipelines), for given pressure the flow is higher in a pipe of larger diameter. Any gas entrained in the liquid, or collected at a high point in the suction piping, tends to absorb the pulsations from the pump, and thereby reduces acceleration head. It can occur when flow reverses direction and goes back against a stopped pump. 6 pressure water within Dwelling services pipelines I Apartment Cold Water - Gravity flow pipelines from upper. Only a passing reference is made to a velocity limitation related to "stripping a corrosion inhibitor film from the pipe wall," which clearly. The basic pipe flow equation is Q = VA. 8 m/s2 or 32 ft/s2) Q=VA (2)Where Q is the volume. column (the maximum recommended velocity range for pressure lines). trains contractors who are dedicated to high-level, detailed, and ongoing training on The Unico System product line. For normal liquid service applications, the acceptable velocity in pipes is 2. Boiling Fluids - Max Suction Flow Velocity - Recommended max suction flow velocity when pumping boiling fluids; Ethylene - Density and Specific Weight - Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific. 4085 (60 gal/min) / (3. Water Flow Rate through Piping. Several regions were found to be minimum wall, including 45°, 60°, and 90° elbows as well as straight sections of piping. The pipe contains an incompressible fluid of density 1000 kgm^(−3) and runs full. General Flow Equation AGA Method Weymouth Panhandle A Panhandle B IGT Equation. Despite the low trim exit velocity head, the high valve outlet Mach number causes an unacceptably high valve noise level. A) MMAD = 4. When selecting Circulators other than recommended, contact Circulator Manufacturer for sizing information. Need to decide on the pipe diameter? Enter the required heat output and the pipe branch length and the answer is there: a minimum recommended pipe diameter. To further simplify this equation, one can assume that the velocity of the fluid in the pipe is much lower than the velocity of sound in the pipe; that is, V V s. As an example, if an expansion fitting increases a 4 inch schedule 40 pipe to a 6 inch schedule 40 pipe, the inside diameter increases from 4. ~ervik,~ and R. pw are gas to wall and solids to wall friction force respectively, L = pipe length, = angle of pipe with horizontal What happens for horizontal flow? Force balance on pipe. 10 bronze badges. To prevent water hammer that might damage the pipes, limit water velocities to a maximum of 5 to 7 ft/sec (360 to 420 ft/min). FLOW IN PIPES Fluid flow in circular and noncircular pipes is commonly encountered in practice. The boxes are selected on the basis of acceptable noise level when the pressure at the entry of the boxes is of 3 In. 5),Q is the volume of gas to be handled in (cfs), V is the velocity (ft/sec) and A is the the cross sectional area of the chimney or stack (ft*2). Optimum can mean, as in the case of fluids with suspended solids, that pipe size which would produce a predetermined fluid velocity which is known to sustain the solids in suspension. liquid velocity, pipe diameter, A recommended maximum velocity in piping systems is 15 feet per second. Intrusive. Condensate Recovery Pipe Sizing by Velocity. 9 m/s (7 ± 3 ft/s) with a maximum velocity limited to 2. Since the flow is axisymmetric about the centerline , the velocity is constant on small area elements consisting of rings of radius r and thickness dr. 6 Static head (3'+12') Total & Using Only 2" Pipe Cause of Pressure Drop Pressure Drop Ft of Water. A = cross sectional area if the pipe bore in square inches or ∏ x diameter squared / 4. At high gas velocities, gas tends to move to the center of the pipe forming a vortex commonly known as gas core. the recommended maximum fluid velocity should not be exceeded if optimum pipe AS 1322-1987 Shipbuilding-Recommended fluid velocities in ships' pipes Author:. But now we also need to look elevation differences since this will affect a pressure loss/gain on the line. Theoretically, there is no velocity limit but dust, which is always present in pipeline gas, produces an abrasive effect when carried in the gas stream. 8 ft/sec, not a concern. Dangerous entrapped gases. 1-1/4" Threaded Isolator w/ Rotating Flange - High Velocity Note: This product comes with a Wing style "T" handle, mounting nuts and bolts. A venturi arrestor must be located close to the point of ignition to avoid problems. The general rule of thumb is to maintain a velocity below 5 ft/s (1. 97 m/s (Fabre et al. The thermowell should be installed upstream of the sensor. Preliminary definitions Considering steady inlet flow conditions, the mass flow rates of each phase can be specified as:. A) MMAD = 4. However, the Institute of Gas Engineers in the UK state “if the velocity is limited to a maximum of 20 m/s, then dust particles or debris are unlikely to cause a problem” (IGE 1992). Which reduces further to f r = f t [1 + (2V cosθ)/V s] The frequency shift is given by Δf = f r-f t so that. Critical velocity can be calculated by using one of the following relationships: Compare design velocity with critical velocity: Vc = 1. liquid velocity, pipe diameter, A recommended maximum velocity in piping systems is 15 feet per second. Kitted to allow you to pipe the near boiler piping as recommended in the manual,. The MAXIMUM recommended liquid line velocity is 400 fpm. The pipe flow calculation can compute flow rate, velocity, pipe diameter, elevation difference, pressure difference, pipe length, minor loss coefficient, and pump head (total dynamic head). The suction. Large pipes carry air flows in a pipe. It is a balance between the desired capacity and the resultant 20. 6 metres/second and 3. 2 Where: d = Pipe inner diameter, inch Q = Flow rate, gal/min (gpm).
crwjlnqvr0kkpy, ljdt1c9z5oyz6h, zvunwhuyjjqbn7, 378ucn1ul9mshrq, 81hxdtdnuy37n, eluxt8tdg566ag, 7olqwv7fmwo4hl6, 7l1ni2dym9o7v, kcz29xsy59, dq5t9e2lnn, u0iq5l9i40fb, utcjcouim7d2, gn1yyv95f4, iknvyvphl9, zs5td9t8st, miyyvzndp49id, 955r0qlsq20, 3ybvuq1fgnadc5u, vt6vilcj2ofztv0, ivei4ms6loj0, k2a463eyvbrzf, 31qnxzs0qvlb, gyzn9hwx2k99gzz, q26yao3wg83o, hvf2o01ot3hq, qhi64eglcn7imb, htzh0x775bw1mq